Potential Health Benefits, Agro-Wastes and Industrial Byproducts of Mango (Mangifera Indica Linn)

Health and Industrial Benefits of Mango


  • Afrah Jabeen University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Madiha Khan Niazi University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Pakistan




Mangifera Indica, Mangiferin, Antimicrobial, Biomass, Agro-wastes


Mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit is widely consumed around the world, but mango leaves are gaining popularity due to their numerous medicinal effects. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) account for about half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide, and their net output is predicted to rise rapidly over the next two decades due to improved agro-industrial technologies, the marketing of new varieties, and demand from health-conscious customers. Mango production costs are far higher than those of its edible part due to the management, recycling, and disposal of agricultural wastes and food by-products; this is even before factoring in the costs related with the environment and human health. Raw mangoes are commonly used in salads and pickles. Because mango has the unique capacity to change sour food into sweet, its prospective benefits as a potent antioxidant and sweetness enhancer are encouraging. Mango fruits, fruit pulp, and leaves were used in Ayurvedic medicine for hundreds of years to treat a wide range of health problems and diseases. According to chemical research, mango and mango leaves include a variety of polyphenolic antioxidants and micronutrients. This review looks into mangiferin and parts of mango, which have multiple health advantages for human health and illness prevention


Bura S, Jasrotia A, Sharma S, Sharma A, Tutlani A. Recent Advances in Breeding of Mango (Mangifera indica): A Review. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023 Oct; 13(11): 521-38. doi: 10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113196

Kumar S, Kaushik RA, Jain D, Saini VP, Babu SR, Choudhary R et al. Genetic diversity among local mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm using morphological, biochemical and chloroplast DNA barcodes analyses. Molecular Biology Reports. 2022 May; 49(5): 3491-501. doi: 10.1007/s11033-022-07186-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-022-07186-7

Lebaka VR, Wee YJ, Ye W, Korivi M. Nutritional composition and bioactive compounds in three different parts of mango fruit. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021 Jan; 18(2): 741. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18020741. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020741

Li L, Wu HX, Ma XW, Xu WT, Liang QZ, Zhan RL et al. Transcriptional mechanism of differential sugar accumulation in pulp of two contrasting mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. Genomics. 2020 Nov; 112(6): 4505-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.07.038. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.07.038

Ghosh S, Avinashe H, Dubey N. Nutritional and Phytochemical Changes During Ripening in Mango: A Review. Current Nutrition & Food Science. 2023 Jun; 19(5): 519-28. doi: 10.2174/1573401319666221014141807. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1573401319666221014141807

Mandal V, Kundu S, Barman J, Adhikary R. Harvesting strategy for different mango varieties based on comparative sugar and phenol contents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2021 Mar; 91: 1-1. doi: 10.1007/s40011-020-01188-w. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-020-01188-w

Bhardwaj R, Pareek S, González-Aguilar GA, Domínguez-Avila JA. Changes in the activity of proline-metabolising enzymes is associated with increased cultivar-dependent chilling tolerance in mangos, in response to pre-storage melatonin application. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 2021 Dec; 182: 111702. doi: 10.1016/j.postharvbio.2021.111702. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2021.111702

Yadav D, Yadav KS, Singh SP. Mango: Taxonomy and botany. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2018; 7(2): 3253-8.

Mahalik G, Jali P, Sahoo S, Satapathy KB. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Mangifera indica L: A review. Structure. 2015;29:31.

Sankaran M, Dinesh MR, Abirami K, Murugan C. Botany of mango. The Mango Genome. 2021: 13-30. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-47829-2_2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47829-2_2

Ediriweera MK, Tennekoon KH, Samarakoon SR. A review on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017 Dec; 2017. doi: 10.1155/2017/6949835. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6949835

Moldes AB, Vecino X, Cruz JM. Nutraceuticals and food additives. In: Current developments in biotechnology and bioengineering. Elsevier: 2017: 143-64. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63666-9.00006-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63666-9.00006-6

Mwaurah PW, Kumar S, Kumar N, Panghal A, Attkan AK, Singh VK et al. Physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and industrial applications of mango kernel and its products: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2020 Sep; 19(5): 2421-46. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12598

Mustafa MA, Sorour MA, Mehanni AH, Hussien SM. Amino acid profile, physico-chemical properties and fatty acids composition of some fruit seed kernels after detoxification. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 2023 May; 10(1): 37. doi: 10.1186/s40538-023-00412-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-023-00412-9

Pușcaș A, Mureșan V, Socaciu C, Muste S. Oleogels in food: A review of current and potential applications. Foods. 2020 Jan; 9(1). doi: 10.3390/foods9010070. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010070

He Y, Wang B, Wen L, Wang F, Yu H, Chen D. Effects of dietary fiber on human health. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2022 Jan; 11(1): 1-0. doi: 10.1016/j.fshw.2021.07.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2021.07.001

Maldonado-Celis ME, Yahia EM, Bedoya R, Landázuri P, Loango N, Aguillón J et al. Chemical composition of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit: Nutritional and phytochemical compounds. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019 Oct; 10: 1073. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01073. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01073

Yahia EM, de Jesús Ornelas-Paz J, Brecht JK, García-Solís P, Celis ME. The contribution of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) to human nutrition and health. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2023 Mar: 104860. doi: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2023.104860. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2023.104860

Gutiérrez-del-Río I, López-Ibáñez S, Magadán-Corpas P, Fernández-Calleja L, Pérez-Valero Á, Tuñón-Granda M et al. Terpenoids and polyphenols as natural antioxidant agents in food preservation. Antioxidants. 2021 Aug; 10(8): 1264. doi: 10.3390/antiox10081264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081264

Ma ZF and Zhang H. Phytochemical constituents, health benefits, and industrial applications of grape seeds: A mini-review. Antioxidants. 2017 Sep; 6(3): 71. doi: 10.3390/antiox6030071. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030071

Zhu F, Du B, Xu B. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2018 May; 58(8): 1260-70. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1251390. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2016.1251390

Siddiq M, Sogi DS, Roidoung S. Mango processing and processed products. In: Handbook of mango fruit: production, postharvest science, processing technology and nutrition. 2017: 195-216. doi: 10.1002/9781119014362.ch10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119014362.ch10

Aggarwal P, Kaur A, Bhise S. Value‐added processing and utilization of mango by‐products. In: Handbook of mango fruit: Production, postharvest science, processing technology and nutrition. 2017: 279-93. doi: 10.1002/9781119014362.ch14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119014362.ch14

Wall‐Medrano A, Olivas‐Aguirre FJ, Ayala‐Zavala JF, Domínguez‐Avila JA, Gonzalez‐Aguilar GA, Herrera‐Cazares LA et al. Health benefits of mango by‐products. Food wastes and by‐products: Nutraceutical and Health Potential. 2020 Jan: 159-91. doi: 10.1002/9781119534167.ch6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119534167.ch6

Okino Delgado CH and Fleuri LF. Orange and mango by-products: Agro-industrial waste as source of bioactive compounds and botanical versus commercial description—A review. Food Reviews International. 2016 Jan; 32(1): 1-4. doi: 10.1080/87559129.2015.1041183. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2015.1041183

Jahurul MH, Zaidul IS, Ghafoor K, Al-Juhaimi FY, Nyam KL, Norulaini NA et al. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: A review. Food Chemistry. 2015 Sep; 183: 173-80. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.046. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.046

Brecht JK and Yahia EM. Harvesting and postharvest technology of mango. In: Handbook of mango fruit: Production, postharvest science, processing technology and nutrition. 2017 Aug: 105-29. doi: 10.1002/9781119014362.ch6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119014362.ch6

Evans EA, Ballen FH, Siddiq M. Mango production, global trade, consumption trends, and postharvest processing and nutrition. In: Handbook of mango fruit: production, postharvest science, processing technology and nutrition. 2017:. 1-6. doi: 10.1002/9781119014362.ch1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119014362.ch1

Niles MT, Ahuja R, Barker T, Esquivel J, Gutterman S, Heller M et al. Climate change mitigation beyond agriculture: a review of food system opportunities and implications. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 2018 Jun; 33(3): 297-308. doi: 10.1017/S1742170518000029. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170518000029

Mishra VK and Gamage TV. Postharvest Handling and Treatments of Fruits and Vegetables. In: Handbook of Food Preservation. CRC Press. 2020: 45-60. doi: 10.1201/9780429091483-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429091483-6

Salvi D, Arserim E, Karwe M. Innovative processing technologies for mango products. Handbook of mango fruit: production, postharvest science, processing technology and nutrition. 2017 Aug:169-93. doi: 10.1002/9781119014362.ch9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119014362.ch9

Perea-Moreno AJ, Perea-Moreno MÁ, Dorado MP, Manzano-Agugliaro F. Mango stone properties as biofuel and its potential for reducing CO2 emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018 Jul; 190: 53-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.147

Ward RW, Michel M, Ortega L. Estimating the impact of the National Mango Board's programs on the United States demand for mangos. InXII International Mango Symposium 1244. 2017 Jul 10 (pp. 193-200). doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2019.1244.29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2019.1244.29

Gutiérrez EC, Wall DM, O'Shea R, Novelo RM, Gómez MM, Murphy JD. An economic and carbon analysis of biomethane production from food waste to be used as a transport fuel in Mexico. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018 Sep; 196: 852-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.051. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.051

Ridoutt BG, Juliano P, Sanguansri P, Sellahewa J. The water footprint of food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2010 Nov; 18(16-17): 1714-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.07.011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.07.011

Henrique MA, Silvério HA, Neto WP, Pasquini D. Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals. Journal of Environmental Management. 2013 May; 121: 202-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.02.054. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.02.054

Arora A, Banerjee J, Vijayaraghavan R, MacFarlane D, Patti AF. Process design and techno-economic analysis of an integrated mango processing waste biorefinery. Industrial Crops and Products. 2018 Jun; 116: 24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.061. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.02.061

Banerjee J, Singh R, Vijayaraghavan R, MacFarlane D, Patti AF, Arora A. A hydrocolloid based biorefinery approach to the valorisation of mango peel waste. Food Hydrocolloids. 2018 Apr; 77: 142-51. doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.09.029. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.09.029

Manthey JA and Perkins-Veazie P. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, the in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009 Nov; 57(22): 10825-30. doi: 10.1021/jf902606h. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf902606h

Blancas-Benitez FJ, Mercado-Mercado G, Quirós-Sauceda AE, Montalvo-González E, González-Aguilar GA, Sáyago-Ayerdi SG. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican ‘Ataulfo’mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products. Food & Function. 2015; 6(3): 859-68. doi: 10.1039/C4FO00982G. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C4FO00982G

Herrera-Cazares LA, Hernández-Navarro F, Ramírez-Jiménez AK, Campos-Vega R, de la Luz Reyes-Vega M, Loarca-Piña G et al. Mango-bagasse functional-confectionery: Vehicle for enhancing bioaccessibility and permeability of phenolic compounds. Food & Function. 2017; 8(11):3 906-16. doi: 10.1039/C7FO00873B. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C7FO00873B

Rodríguez-González S, Gutiérrez-Ruíz IM, Pérez-Ramírez IF, Mora O, Ramos-Gomez M, Reynoso-Camacho R. Mechanisms related to the anti-diabetic properties of mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice by-product. Journal of Functional Foods. 2017 Oct; 37: 190-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2017.07.058. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.07.058

Nakajima H, Tadokoro S, Hashiba H, Ito F, Furuya H, Kabuki T et al. Bacteriostatic and antibacterial agent containing mango kernel component. United States patent US 6,063,382. 2000 May.

Telang M, Dhulap S, Mandhare A, Hirwani R. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin: A patent review. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents. 2013 Dec; 23(12): 1561-80. doi: 10.1517/13543776.2013.836182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1517/13543776.2013.836182

Poomanee W, Khunkitti W, Chaiyana W, Intasai N, Lin WC, Lue SC et al. Multifunctional biological properties and phytochemical constituents of Mangifera indica L. seed kernel extract for preventing skin aging. Toxicological Research. 2021 Feb: 1-4. doi: 10.1007/s43188-020-00079-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43188-020-00079-6

Pardo-Andreu GL, Sánchez-Baldoquín C, Ávila-González R, Delgado R, Naal Z, Curti C. Fe (III) improves antioxidant and cytoprotecting activities of mangiferin. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2006 Oct; 547(1-3): 31-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.07.040. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.07.040

Pokorski M, Poździk M, Mazzatenta A. Antioxidant treatment for impaired hypoxic ventilatory responses in experimental diabetes in the rat. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 2018 Sep; 255: 30-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2018.05.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2018.05.005

Swaroop A, Bagchi M, Moriyama H, Bagchi D. Health benefits of mango (Mangifera indica L.) and mangiferin. Japan Journal of Medicine. 2018; 1(2): 149-54. doi: 10.31488/jjm.1000109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31488/jjm.1000109

Du S, Liu H, Lei T, Xie X, Wang H, He X et al. Mangiferin: An effective therapeutic agent against several disorders. Molecular Medicine Reports. 2018 Dec 1;18(6): 4775-86. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9529. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.9529

Song Y, Liu W, Tang K, Zang J, Li D, Gao H. Mangiferin alleviates renal interstitial fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through regulating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2020 Feb; 2020. doi: 10.1155/2020/9481720. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9481720

Kim H, Castellon-Chicas MJ, Arbizu S, Talcott ST, Drury NL, Smith S et al. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) polyphenols: Anti-inflammatory intestinal microbial health benefits, and associated mechanisms of actions. Molecules. 2021 May; 26(9): 2732. doi: 10.3390/molecules26092732. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092732

Mei S, Ma H, Chen X. Anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of mangiferin: A review of its molecular mechanisms. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2021 Mar; 149: 111997. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2021.111997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.111997

Pithayanukul P, Leanpolchareanchai J, Saparpakorn P. Molecular docking studies and anti− snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract. Molecules. 2009 Aug; 14(9): 3198-213. doi: 10.3390/molecules14093198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules14093198

Rajasekaran A and Soundarapandian S. Nutritional and medicinal values of Mangifera indica L. fruit. Trends in Horticulture. 2023 Nov; 6(2): 2949. doi: 10.24294/th.v6i2.2949. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24294/th.v6i2.2949

Parvez GM. Pharmacological activities of mango (Mangifera indica): A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2016; 5(3): 01-7.

Ogbonna DN, Lugbe Q, Nrior RR. Antibacterial Properties of Young and Mature Mango Leaves (Mangifera indica) Extract on Some Clinical Isolates. Microbiology Research Journal International. July 2022; 32(4): 1-12. doi: 10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i430378. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i430378

McMurray RL, Ball ME, Tunney MM, Corcionivoschi N, Situ C. Antibacterial activity of four plant extracts extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Microorganisms. 2020 Jun; 8(6): 962. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8060962. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060962

Diso S, Ali M, Mukhtar S, Garba M. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of Mangifera indica (Mango) stem and leaf extracts on clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 Jan; 13(1): 1-6. doi: 10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/JAMPS/2017/31127

Ahmed EF. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of mango seeds extract. Iraqi Journal of Science. 2015; 56(4B): 3121-9.

Barman H, Roy A, Das SK, Singh NU, Dangi DK, Tripathi AK. Antifungal properties of some selected plant extracts against leaf blight (Alternaria alternata) in tomato. Research on Crops. 2016; 17(1): 151-6.a doi: 10.5958/2348-7542.2016.00027.9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/2348-7542.2016.00027.9

Shah KA, Patel MB, Patel RJ, Parmar PK. Mangifera indica (mango). Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2010 Jan; 4(7): 42. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.65325. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.65325

Amien AI, Fahmy SR, Abd-Elgleel FM, Elaskalany SM. Renoprotective effect of Mangifera indica polysaccharides and silymarin against cyclophosphamide toxicity in rats. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology. 2015 Oct; 72: 154-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jobaz.2015.09.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobaz.2015.09.006

Słupski W, Jawień P, Nowak B. Botanicals in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutrients. 2021 May; 13(5): 1609. doi: 10.3390/nu13051609. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051609

Batool N, Ilyas N, Shabir S, Saeed M, Mazhar R, Amjid MW. A mini-review of therapeutic potential of Mangifera indica L. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018 Jul; 31(4).

Dam PK and Kumar P. Cross matching tribal ethno medicinal practices in diarrhea & dysentery by Bhil-Mina tribe of Banswara, Rajasthan with published pharmacological research. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2018 Feb; 7: 869-95.



DOI: 10.54393/df.v5i01.114
Published: 2024-03-31

How to Cite

Jabeen, A., & Niazi, M. K. (2024). Potential Health Benefits, Agro-Wastes and Industrial Byproducts of Mango (Mangifera Indica Linn): Health and Industrial Benefits of Mango . DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences), 5(01), 19–26. https://doi.org/10.54393/df.v5i01.114


Most read articles by the same author(s)