DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) <p><strong>Title of Journal: DIET FACTOR (ISSN Online:2789-8105, Print:2789-8091)</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Affiliated with:</strong> Lahore Medical Research Center</p> <p><strong>Website:</strong> (<a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Published By:</strong> CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href=""></a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>LMRC’s Journal of Nutritional &amp; Food Science <strong>(Diet Factor)</strong> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed journal offering accessible and comprehensive coverage of food, beverage, and nutrition research. <strong>Diet Factor </strong>offers scientists and food professionals the prospect of sharing scientific encroachments in the myriad of disciplines affecting their work, to help advance the science of food and food innovation across the globe.</p> <p>The aim of the <strong>Diet Factor</strong> is to offer scientists and researchers an international forum to <em>enable</em> the rapid dissemination of practical and social applications of research at the forefront of food and nutritional sciences as well as interdisciplinary research that spans these two fields. The journal publishes double-blind peer-reviewed articles that covers all the aspects of food science, including the interface between production agriculture and food, as well as how food science influences health and nutrition. In all cases, the key findings in multidisciplinary articles must address some innovative or controversial practices and points of view of the science of food.</p> <p><strong>Diet Factor</strong> is committed to maintaining the highest standards of professional ethics, accuracy, and quality in all matters related to handling manuscripts and reporting scientific information.</p> <p>The journal welcomes empirical and applied research, viewpoint papers, conceptual and technical papers, case studies, meta-analysis studies, literature reviews, mini reviews and letters to the editors that take a scientific approach to the following topics: Dietetics, Community Nutrition, Obesity and Weight loss, Molecular Nutrition, Nutrigenomics, Metabolic, Molecular, and Genetic Mechanisms of Nutrients, Disease Prevention, Nutritional Methodologies and Modeling, Nutritional Epidemiology, Clinical Nutrition, Nutrition in different Cultural and Ethnic Groups, Nutrition in Life Cycle, Nutrition in Medical Management, Plant and Animal Nutrition, Diet and Aging and Age-related degeneration, Nutritional Public Health Initiatives, Policies and Legislation, Clinical and Community Nutrition and Health (including public health and multiple or complex co-morbidities) and Nutritional and Food Sciences.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version (Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here </span><a href=""></a></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> (Khurram Mehboob) (Khurram Mehboob) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Development and Characterization of Bauhinia variegata Linn leaves powder Biscuits <p>Iron deficiency anemia is the major public health problem all over the world especially in children under 5 and pregnant females. <strong>Objective:</strong> To develop and explore the nutritional and sensory quality of iron and Vitamin C enriched biscuits by using leave powder of <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> and lemon juice for the study period of two months. <strong>Methods: </strong>Experimental research was performed to determine the levels of macronutrients, micronutrients and overall acceptability of <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> leaves powder biscuits. For this purpose, <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> leaves were collected, washed with clean water, sun-dried and finely grinded to form powder. <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> leaves powder was analyzed for proximate analysis, iron and Vitamin C levels. Functional biscuits with treatments (T<sub>0</sub>, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub>) were made by using 10 g and 10 mL of B<em>auhinia variegata</em> leaves powder and lemon juice respectively. The iron-enriched biscuits were evaluated for proximate composition, iron, Vitamin C contents and sensory traits such as color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptability. One-way Anova was applied on the obtained results. <strong>Results: </strong>The consequences found that <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> leaves powder was rich in protein and iron contents. Incorporation of <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> leaves powder and lemon juice in the biscuits significantly increased the nutritional composition of biscuits. The results related to sensory parameters proved that <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> leaves powder biscuits had high sensory acceptability as compared to control. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>It is concluded that by adding dried leaves powder of <em>Bauhinia variegata</em> and juice of lemon improved the nutritive value and consumer acceptability of the functional biscuits.</p> Uswa Ahmad, Shiza Ahmed, Saleha Hameed, Sana Azhar, Ayesha Malik Copyright (c) 2024 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Eating Habits and Lifestyle Practice of Young Adults in Karachi, Pakistan; a Cross-Sectional Survey <p>Each year in Pakistan about 35% to 40% of deaths occur due to cardiovascular disease that is mainly caused by decreased physical activity and unhealthy food consumption. Obesity among young people is a serious public health issue because it is frequently associated with multiple metabolic syndromes. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine young adults' eating habits and lifestyle practices and compare this among male and female genders. <strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 249 participants aged between 18 to 25 years young adults were recruited from different universities using a non-probability convenient sampling technique. The participants' eating habits and lifestyle practices were analyzed using a self-designed questionnaire. <strong>Results: </strong>Among 249 students, 43.8% were male 56.2% were female. Statistically, there was a significant difference found between the two genders in the consumption of water (p&lt;0.001), and meal consumption daily (p=0.007), Eating habits after joining university (p=0.44), thinking of physically strong (p=0.001), Physical inactivity (p&lt;0.001) and their preferred living place in leisure time (p&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study concluded that most of the female were involved in unhealthy dietary habits concerning skipping meals and having fast food, whereas there is no difference found between genders in their physical activity. However further research should be conducted to explore the relation of eating habits and lifestyle in gender</p> Fahima Mohammad Irfan, Faryal Muhammad Irfan, Sami ur Rehman, Aqsa Faiz, Mubushara Afzal, Muhammad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nutritional Status among Tuberculosis Patients: A Survey-Based Study <p>Tuberculosis (TB) remains a formidable global health challenge, representing a significant contributor to illness, mortality, and disability. Despite medical advancements, TB persists as the leading cause of death attributable to treatable infectious diseases, underscoring its enduring impact on public health worldwide.<strong> Objective:</strong> To assess the nutritional status among tuberculosis patients. <strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study encompassing both male and female participants was conducted. Out of the 205 participants involved, 115 were male and 90 were female, with an average age of 45 years. Our sample pool included both newly diagnosed and retreatment tuberculosis (TB) patients, and data gathering took place across various healthcare facilities within the Sahiwal district of Punjab, Pakistan.<strong> Results</strong>: Our research also found that patients with tuberculosis (TB) symptoms lasting over three months before diagnosis, were more prone to malnutrition compared to those with symptom durations. Additionally, our study indicated that 46.8% of the individuals involved in the research were malnourished. To sum up, our study underscores the link between health and TB among individuals. This study noted multiple factors like family size, income, education level, and other socioeconomic factors that affect tuberculosis outcomes and emphasized the importance of treatment outcomes.<strong> Conclusions:</strong> Detecting TB early and ensuring patients receive diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent undernutrition from developing in TB patients</p> Tanveer Aslam, Inaba Shujaat Qureshi, Aqsa Ali, Hina Nasir, Saman Qadeer, Farah Qaisar, Swaira Malik, Ayat Shujaat Qureshi Copyright (c) 2024 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Therapeutic Effect of Avishan-e-Shirazi (Zataria Multiflora Boiss) Root Extract on Oxidative Stress Markers in Moderate Asthmatic Patients <p>Avishan-e-Shirazi (<em>Zataria Multiflora</em> Boiss) is a plant widely recognised for its medicinal and culinary purposes. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To evaluate the therapeutic effect of plant’s root extract on pulmonary function tests and oxidative stress markers among moderate Asthma tic patients. <strong>Methods: </strong>A total participant of 66 patients with pulmonary disease, 30-40 age, were selected for the 2-month research trial. Individuals were enrolled and distributed equally in two groups, 33 each. In the control group, 53.8% of individual were man, and 46.2% were women. In the treatment group, 49.1% of participants were man, and 50.9% were women. The groups G<sub>0</sub> was considered as a control group with no root extract, and group G<sub>1</sub> where conventional treatment and root extract were advised to participants. The participants were selected from the Jinnah Hospital, Pakistan. The 5mg/kg/day dried root extract supplements 3 times a day were given to the individuals daily for 2 months. <strong>Results: </strong>The mean age group of Asthma tic patients enrolled in the study was 35 ± 2.98 years in G<sub>0, </sub>and in G<sub>1, </sub>it was 34 ± 3.05. The mean BMI was 31.34 and 30.98 kgm<sup>-2</sup> in both groups, respectively. There was a significant improvement in FEV1 levels and MDA enzyme levels with a p-value less than 0.05. The NO<sub>2</sub> levels were also better. Similarly, the enzymes thiolase and SOD levels also improved with a p-value less than 0.05 in the treatment group. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The current study concluded that Avishan-e-Shirazi root extract could improve the pulmonary function and inflammation among Asthma patients. </p> Farah Khanum, Noor Fatima, Noor A Fatima, Sheeza Munawar, Muntaha Jaffar, Atiqa Hassan, Alina Akbar, Misbah Arshad Copyright (c) 2024 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determination Of Aflatoxin in Various Spices Samples and Its Detoxification Using Black Seed Oil: A Biological Approach <p>Aflatoxins are poisonous compounds generated by specific fungal species that are naturally occurring everywhere and are essentially inevitable. They can seriously endanger human health by contaminating food crops. Aflatoxin contamination of spices is a serious worldwide problem that affects trade and they are cited as the first significant risk in border rejection. <strong>Objectives: </strong>The objectives of this study were to ascertain the aflatoxin content of different spices samples and to use varying concentrations of black seed oil to detoxify positive samples. <strong>Methods:</strong> Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) was used to determine the aflatoxins in various spices and contaminated sample were detoxified by black seed oil. <strong>Results:</strong> From this study aflatoxins were detected in 70% and 30% spices samples have no aflatoxin. Among contaminated samples 43% had aflatoxins beyond the permissible limits whereas 57% had the aflatoxins below the permissible limits.<strong> The</strong> positive samples were alleviated by biological method i.e. black seed oil (1-10%) which detoxified aflatoxin in fennel 49.52 ± 1.50 – 92.50 ± 1.94% and detoxification level was found in cumin seed 55.37 ± 1.52 – 87.32 ± 1.83 while in fenugreek it was ranging from 50.20 ± 1.50 – 82.37 ± 1.75. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study showed that black seed lowered aflatoxin levels in some spices.</p> Muhammad Khalid Saeed, Shaheena Anjum, Naseem Zahra, Irram Shahzadi, Zille Huma, Amara Khan, Khalil ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nutritional Preparedness: Strengthening Immune Defenses against Biological Threats <p>As the world continues to grapple with the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become increasingly evident how vulnerable we are to Biological Warfare. At the time of crisis, developing effective vaccines at such short notice and distributing them equitably proved to be a significant challenge. Some governments and health policy makers were ill-equipped to handle the task effectively resulting in unnecessary delays in the process of developing effective vaccines and ineffective supply chains that consequently resulted in millions of death worldwide. All this has urged and spurred governments to prioritize bio-preparedness and enhance bio-defense measures. &nbsp;</p> <p>However apart from the Governments and health policy makers’ preparedness, COVID 19 pandemic has taught us invaluable lessons for preparing ourselves at individual level for such threats in future. We have now become more aware of the importance of personnel hygiene and maintaining body’s resistance against the foreign agent that could protect us from the biological threat. As seen during the recent pandemic, individuals with underlying health conditions, many of which were linked to poor dietary habits were more vulnerable to the infection.&nbsp; The pandemic has served as a wake-up call, highlighting the importance of prioritizing nutrition as a means of modulating our gut microbiome consequently fortifying our body's defenses against infections and diseases. A comprehensive literature survey has proven how healthy dietary choices including an adequate supply of essential and bioactive nutrients such as vitamins, proteins, Zinc etc and bioactive compounds such as probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyphenols etc, could reduce inflammations and help maintain a robust immune system.</p> <p>Nutrition plays a crucial role in maintaining a healthy immune system and warding off infections. &nbsp;Research has consistently shown that a well-balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats is essential for bolstering our immune response. These nutrient-dense foods provide our bodies with the vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants necessary to support our immune system's function. For instance, vitamin C, found in citrus fruits and leafy greens, is known for its immune-boosting properties. It aids in the production of white blood cells, which are vital for fighting off infections. Similarly, vitamin E, present in nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, acts as an antioxidant that protects our cells from damage and strengthens our immune system.</p> <p>As we navigate the post-pandemic landscape, it is imperative that we draw lessons from this experience and prioritize nutrition as a fundamental aspect of public health. Healthcare professionals, educators, and policymakers must work collaboratively to integrate nutrition education into public health initiatives and empower individuals to make informed food choices.</p> <p>Furthermore, media outlets play a crucial role in disseminating information about the link between diet and immunity. By featuring expert opinions, sharing immune-boosting recipes, and debunking common myths surrounding nutrition, the media can help foster a culture of health-conscious eating habits.</p> <p>In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the critical role of diet in supporting our immune system's ability to combat infections and diseases. It is imperative that we seize this opportunity to prioritize nutrition education and promote healthy eating habits as essential components of public health initiatives. By doing so, we can empower individuals to take proactive steps towards bolstering their immune health and ultimately contribute to a healthier population. Personal preparedness complements government and health policy efforts. By taking responsibility for our own health and well-being, we can create a more resilient society that is better equipped to handle future biological threats.</p> Naheed Mojgani, Sumel Ashique Copyright (c) 2024 DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000