Impact of Seasonal Variations (Aflatoxin M1 & Heavy metals) on Quality of Marketed Milk
Quality of Marketed Milk
Keywords:Aflatoxin, Mycotoxins, Maximum residual limits, Milk contamination
This study thoroughly examined the safety and quality of commercially accessible milk in light of the growing concerns about food safety and its effects on public health. Objective: To monitor the amount of aflatoxin and heavy metals found in commercially available milk from different cities in central Punjab, Pakistan. Method: The collection of milk samples was done from three major cities in central Punjab, including Lahore, Faisalabad, and Jhang, to measure the contamination of Aflatoxin M1 and heavy metals from 2018-2019. Results: The maximum concentration of AFM1 (0.38-1.65µg/L) was observed in the semi-flush season from Lahore, followed by Faisalabad (0.37-1.63 µg/L) and Jhang (0.35-1.62µg/L) whereas, the minimum concentration of AFM1 (0.15-0.46µg/L) was observed during the lean season in the milk samples procured from Jhang, followed by Faisalabad (0.17-0.47µg/L) and Lahore (0.18-0.49µg/L). The levels of lead and cadmium in milk samples fluctuated seasonally, with Lahore having the highest contamination (Pb: 0.062ng/L, cadmium: 0.037ng/L), followed by Faisalabad and Jhang. Milk sample %ages exceeded the national and international aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) maximum residual limits (MRL). Conclusion: All milk samples from different milking seasons were above the EU's maximum residual level of 0.05µg/L. They were still within the Pakistan Standard and Quality Control Authority's (10µg/L) recommended range.
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