The Relationship between Occupation and Serum Vitamin D Levels in Females during Summer in Sindh, Pakistan

Occupation and Serum Vitamin D Levels Relationship


  • Keenjhar Rani Department of Physiology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Feriha Fatima Biochemistry Department, Bilawal Medical College, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Hina Riaz Department of Physiology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Sindhu Laghari Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Hira Laghari Department of Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan
  • Abid Hussain Khuwaja Maternal and Child Health Care Centre (MCHC), Badin, Pakistan



Hypovitaminosis D, Body Mass Index (BMI), Tukey HSD Means Separation Test


Vitamin D deficiency is a considerable public health issue affecting predominantly South Asians. Objective: To determine the vitamin D levels in females related to different occupations during summer in Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro.  Healthy females (n = 236) were recruited according to different occupations into four groups: outdoor workers, office workers, students, and housewives. Results: Overall, 43.6% were vitamin D deficient, 28.9% were vitamin D insufficient, and 27.5% of females had sufficient vitamin D levels. Hypovitaminosis D was highly prevalent in housewives (62.7%) compared to outdoor workers (16.9%). In general, the mean vitamin D of all examined groups was found to be less than the optimal level, and significant differences were noted between occupational groups. Conclusions: The results showed that hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among Pakistani females. Moreover, occupations associated with reduced sun exposure may pose an added risk. 


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DOI: 10.54393/df.v4i03.85
Published: 2023-12-31

How to Cite

Rani, K., Fatima, F., Riaz, H. ., Laghari, S., Laghari, H. ., & Khuwaja, A. H. . (2023). The Relationship between Occupation and Serum Vitamin D Levels in Females during Summer in Sindh, Pakistan : Occupation and Serum Vitamin D Levels Relationship. DIET FACTOR (Journal of Nutritional and Food Sciences), 4(03), 51–56.