Plagiarism Policy

Purpose
The core purpose of this document is to curb plagiarism by providing clear guidelines on various matters related to plagiarism. Furthermore, it aims to establish Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for effective, seamless and proper implementation of anti-plagiarism policy.
Scope
This anti-plagiarism policy shall apply to all research degree programs i.e. MS/MPhil/Equivalent and PhD programs being offered at the University and its sub-campuses.

Definition of Plagiarism
HEC has comprehensively defined plagiarism in its ‘Plagiarism Policy’. The excerpt of the said HEC policy is reproduced as under:
“According to Oxford Dictionary, plagiarism is defined as ‘taking and using the thoughts, writings and inventions of another person as one’s own’. This, or various similar definitions found in recognized publications / documents, are very broad and can be used to create awareness about Plagiarism but are not practical enough to apply in order to ascertain guilt or innocence in specific cases. In order to establish the violation of ethical norms, or academic or intellectual dishonesty resulting from Plagiarism and to take punitive actions in this regard, it is necessary that the variety of forms in which Plagiarism manifests itself are known. These include but are not limited to the following:
a. Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author’s paper or unpublished report without citing the exact reference.
b. Copying elements of another author’s paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the source.
c. Verbatim copying portions of another author’s paper or from reports by citing but not clearly
differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or not citing the source correctly.
d. The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models / algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases, mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams, graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts, digital images, computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any sort, posters, presentations and tracing.
e. Self-plagiarism, that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one’s own copyrighted work without citing the original source.”

Adoption of HEC Policies
As mentioned earlier, all anti-plagiarism policies, rules, regulations and guidelines provided by HEC shall be adopted and fully implemented university-wide in letter and spirit. HEC also issues notifications from time to time as an on-going activity. Therefore, all such notifications shall be deliberated at appropriate forum(s) of DIET FACTOR for adoption/adaptation in the light of Journal structure/settings. 

Turnitin
Turnitin is an internet-based plagiarism detection service, being used globally to check plagiarism. It helps students, faculty, and researchers etc. to determine a similarity index of the submitted documents. HEC is incessantly advising to use Turnitin for checking plagiarism in assignments, papers and reports etc. DIET FACTOR has already been making use of this extremely useful plagiarism detection software (B). It shall continue to use this software in official capacity.
The Journal shall offer Turnitin services as per following guidelines:


Who is Eligible to Get a Turnitin Account?
The Lahore Medical Research Center and our Journal officals shall be eligible for Turnitin account by the virtue of their positions. The supervisors/ LMRC members may also obtain Turnitin account on recommendations of management. 


How to get Turnitin Access/Account?
• Download the ‘Turnitin Access Form’ (C) from  webpage of the official website.
• Submit the duly filled, signed and stamped ‘Turnitin Access Form’ to QEC.
• QEC shall process the request in 2-3 working days and communicate login and password to the
eligible candidate on the official email address without intimation (Cc) to anyone.


System Control
To upload a single file, the users are advised to keep in view the general guidelines of Turnitin.

Code of Conduct
The students/Researchers are expected to:
• Ensure the observance of the universal moral principles of research
• Abide by all DIET FACTOR & LMRC research policies, rules, regulations and guidelines etc.
• Follow local and international applicable research policies and established practices
• Avoid immoral research practices
• Apply suitable and relevant research methods
• Conclude on the basis of critical analysis of the evidence
• Report completely and correctly, the findings of a research
• Keep clear, complete and accurate records of all research
• Acknowledge the individuals who made contributions to the research
• Obtain informed consent from the respondents/unit of analysis, for example, surveys in case of Social Sciences, a declaration to the respondents/unit of analysis on the assurance of confidentiality and right to withdraw from study at any time prior to data collection
• Keep privacy/secrecy when reviewing others’ work, and
• Avoid plagiarism of all nature
Note: Refer to HEC guidelines on ‘Ethics of Using Turnitin for Administrators and Faculty’ (F).
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) While carrying out research work, the main supervisor can check plagiarism of thesis using officially provided Turnitin account or can request the focal person/HOD of the concerned department under his/her own discretion. The supervisor shall maintain record of complete plagiarism reports of interim documents, for ready reference, as and when required. The final plagiarism report for placement in the hard bound copies shall be generated through officially provided Turnitin account and duly signed by the student, supervisor and the Convener DRC.

Duty to Report
All DIET FACTOR & LMRC community members have the implicit duty to report to the authorities concerned, in good faith and without fear, any suspected research misconduct like fabrication, falsification and plagiarism etc. and/ or any incident where known facts indicate a possibility of a code or policy violation.


Policy Audit
QEC shall arrange the audit of departments, libraries etc. for checking the implementation of the
aforementioned policies and SOPs.


Policy Revision
The policy shall be revised, as and when required.

HEC PLAGIARISM POLICY

Preamble
In the wake of fundamental improvements being introduced in the system of Higher Education in Pakistan, the credit, respect, recognition of research and scholarly publications, career development and financial gains are now linked with such original works accomplished without replicating the efforts of other researchers. It has therefore become necessary that the menace of plagiarism is highlighted and curbed through exemplary punitive actions. On the other hand, we must also guard against bogus or false complaints in order to prevent victimization which may make researchers and scholars shy away from research simply because of the fear of prosecution. A Plagiarism Policy has therefore become necessary to create awareness, define various forms in which Plagiarism exhibits itself, present a methodology of investigation, cater for punitive action proportional to the extent of the offence and even address the issue of false or spurious complaints.

Definition
According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Plagiarism is defined as “taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one’s own”. This, or various similar definitions found in recognized publications / documents, are very broad and can be used to create awareness about Plagiarism but are not practical enough to apply in order to ascertain guilt or innocence in specific cases. In order to establish the violation of ethical norms or academic or intellectual dishonesty resulting from Plagiarism and to take punitive actions in this regard, it is necessary that the variety of forms in which Plagiarism manifests itself are known. These include but are not limited to the following:
• “Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author’s paper or unpublished report without citing the exact reference.
• Copying elements of another author’s paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the source.
• Verbatim copying portions of another author’s paper or from reports by citing but not clearly
differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or not citing the source correctly” [1].
• “The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models / algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases, mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams, graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts, digital images, computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any sort, posters, presentations and tracing.” [2]
• “Self-plagiarism, that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one’s
own copyrighted work without citing the original source.